Introduction to Solar PV

    Renewables

What is solar PV?

The process of converting light (photons) to electricity (voltage) is called the solar photovoltaic (PV) effect. Photovoltaic solar cells convert sunlight directly into solar power (electricity). They use thin layers of semi-conducting material that is charged differently between the top and bottom layers. The semi-conducting material can be encased between a sheet of glass and/or a polymer resin.

When exposed to daylight, electrons in the semi-conducting material absorb the photons, causing them to become highly energised. These move between the top and bottom surfaces of the semi-conducting material. This movement of electrons generates a current known as a direct current (DC). This is then fed through an inverter, which converts the power to alternating current (AC) for use in your home.

Types of solar panel

Different types of solar PV installations require slightly different components. However in the next two sections we have explained in detail all the main components that will make up your solar PV array and provide you with 100% renewable, free electricity.

The solar panel is the key component of any solar photovoltaic system, which takes the sun’s energy and converts it into an electrical current. There are three main types of solar panel (as well as the hybrid version) currently in commercial production, all of which are based on silicon semiconductors:

Monocrystalline solar cells

This type of solar cell is made from thin wafers of silicon cut from artificially-grown crystals. These cells are created from single crystals grown in isolation, making them the most expensive of the three varieties (approximately 35% more expensive than equivalent polycrystalline cells), but they have the highest efficiency rating – between 15-24%.

Polycrystalline solar cells

This type of solar cell is also made from thin wafers of silicon cut from artificially grown crystals, but instead of single crystals, these cells are made from multiple interlocking silicon crystals grown together. This makes them cheaper to produce, but their efficiency is lower than the monocrystalline solar cells, currently at 13-18%

Amorphous solar cells

These are the cheapest type of solar cell to produce, are relatively new to the market and are produced very differently to the two other types. Instead of using crystals, silicon is deposited very thinly on a backing substrate.

There are two real benefits of the amorphous solar cell; firstly the layer of silicon is so thin it allows the solar cells to be flexible, and secondly they are more efficient in low light levels (like during winter).

This, however, comes at a price; they have the lowest efficiency rating of all three types – approximately 7% – 9%, requiring approximately double the panel area to produce the same output. In addition, as this is a relatively new science, there is no agreed industry-wide production technique, so they are not as robust as the other two types.

Hybrid solar cells

This is not a type of solar cell in its own right; instead it is a combination of both amorphous solar cells and monocrystalline solar cells. These are known as HIT solar cells (Heterojunction with Intrinsic Thin Layer – a bit of a mouthful!), and have higher efficiency ratings than any of the other three types of solar cell alone. In addition, they are also better suited in sunnier climes, where temperatures often exceed 250C, creating up to 10% more electricity.

We think in many cases polycrystalline cells are the most suitable option, as they provide value for money while still also being relatively efficient.

Future solar technologies

Solar PV inverters

All the electricity produced by the solar panels is produced as direct current (DC), which differs from the electricity that is distributed through the grid and we use in our homes, which is alternating current (AC). For this reason most solar photovoltaic systems are now connected up with some type of inverter, which changes the DC to AC, allowing the individual to sell the electricity back to the grid (in grid-tied systems) or to be used easily in homes.

There are 2 major types of inverter that can be installed in your solar photovoltaic system:

1. String inverters (also known as central inverters)

These are used in grid-tied systems where the solar panels are wired together in series, which is known as a string of panels. Each string of panels is connected to a string inverter, which converts the DC current to AC for use in the home and selling back to the grid. You can imagine each string as a mini power station, producing electricity.

The main issue with string inverters is that if one of the panels in the string fails or produces less electricity (from things like shading), this impacts the output of all the panels. They will all operate at the output of the worst panel, so a small amount of shading or debris on your solar array can disproportionally reduce the total output of your entire solar photovoltaic system.

They also have relatively short lifespans when compared to micro inverters.

The benefits include simple wiring and that you can use thinner wires within your solar PV system, so less copper is used which makes the system cheaper. Buying one string inverter (which is normally the case of most home solar PV systems) is also considerably cheaper than buying multiple micro inverters.

2. Micro inverters

These are a newer technology and service each solar panel individually, so each panel requires its own micro inverter and acts as an individual power station.  As a result, micro inverters do not suffer the same performance reduction as a result of shading because any power reduction in a particular solar panel is handled by one micro inverter, having little effect on the combined power output from the entire solar photovoltaic system.

Micro inverters are much more expensive than the string inverters. However much of this cost is offset by the increased performance (25% more power produced using micro inverters) and the fact that they are more reliable than string inverters (warranties for micro inverters are up to 25 years).

Buying inverters for your solar PV system

When looking for which inverters to buy, ideally you want your alternating current (AC) to match that provided by the utility companies. Waveform relates to the quality of the AC signal that an inverter produces. Cheaper inverters will provide modified sine wave signal, while the more expensive versions will produce the pure sine wave signal. Some appliances (such as computers) simply don’t work unless they are powered by a pure sine wave signal, so we recommend strongly that you spend a little more to get this type of inverter.

Grid tie inverters differ slightly from your regular inverters in that the AC pure sine wave signal has to be perfectly coordinated with the waveform from the grid. As such, these tend to be more expensive than the typical inverters that you buy. They also have a built-in safety feature to cut off power from the solar array if the electricity grid goes down for any reason.

It is also worth noting that most inverters now also have ‘Maximum Power Point Tracking’ (known as MPPT) installed within them, which helps to maximise the electrical output of your solar photovoltaic array system.

The principle of MPPT is to extract the maximum available power from the photovoltaic module by making them operate at the most efficient voltage (known as the maximum power point voltage). The algorithm included in the MPPT inverter compares the output from the photovoltaic module with grid voltage and then fixes it at the most efficient voltage, to allow you to export the maximum amount of kWh of electricity back to the grid. An MPPT charger in your solar photovoltaic system will improve your power gain by 20-45% in the winter and 10-15% in the summer.

Benefits

Limitations

The battery

One of the major issues with solar PV systems is that they only produce electricity when the sun is shining. If you are looking to go ‘off-grid’ or have battery back up in times of grid blackouts, you will need batteries within your solar PV system.

In these systems, electricity produced from the solar cells is either used in the home as required, or if there is no demand in the home, it is converted to chemical energy in the form of batteries. These batteries can then produce the electicrity at night to allow you to use your solar PV system ’24/7′.

The electricity produced by your solar system is stored in deep-cycle lead acid batteries that look very similar to the ones found in most cars today (although structurally different). The two most popular types of battery are GEL and Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM), which store the charge very well and do not degrade nearly as fast as the common lead acid (wet cell) battery. Both types of batteries are designed to gradually discharge slowly and recharge 80% of their capacity a multiple number of times.

An automotive battery is a shallow-cycle battery, and this is designed to discharge only about 20% of its electricity so is unsuitable for solar photovoltaic set-up. The reason being is that if any more than 20% is drawn more than a few dozen times, it will get damaged and no longer take charge.

Solar photovoltaic batteries tend to operate at 12 volts, and can be arranged in banks (multiple batteries), increasing the storage potential of your solar photovoltaic set up. A bank of batteries organised in a series increases the capacity of your storage but also increases the voltage delivered from your bank, while multiple batteries organised in a parallel circuit increase the capacity, but keep the voltage the same (mains electricity runs at higher voltage, so if you have a grid tie system it is likely you will try to match this by running the batteries in series).

Solar Charge Controllers

Solar Charge Controllers (also known as Solar Charge Regulators) are used in solar photovoltaic systems to prevent the batteries from being overcharged. If you decide to implement a ‘grid-tied’ system, a solar charge controller is not necessary, as any excess electricity that you don’t use at any particular moment is sold directly back to the grid.

However, for any of the other three setups, a charge controller is necessary; it acts to regulate the flow of electricity between the solar photovoltaic modules, the batteries and your appliances (known as the load).

When the load is drawing power (e.g. you are watching television), the charge controller allows electricity to flow from the solar panels directly (if the sun is shining), or from the battery, or from a mixture of the two. The charge controller also prevents damage to the battery by monitoring the flow of electricity in and out. For instance if your system overcharges the battery, it will damage them. The same is also true if you completely discharge all the charge held within the battery.

At night, when the solar units are no longer producing electricity, the solar charge controller prevents reverse current flowing from the batteries back into the solar panels.

Solar charge controllers also are equipped with highly effective charging programs that maximise the charging speed, while still preventing overcharging.

Most are also equipped with maximum power point (MPPT) charging. The principle of MPPT is to extract the maximum available power from the photovoltaic module by making them operate at the most efficient voltage (known as the maximum power point voltage). The algorithm included in the MPPT solar charge controller compares the output from the photovoltaic module with the battery voltage and then fixes it at the best charging voltage, to get the maximum charge into the battery. The maximum power produced by the solar photovoltaic module is dependent on the amount of sun hitting the solar cells and the temperature of the cells. Incorporating a MPPT charger into your solar photovoltaic system will improve your power gain by 20-45% in the winter and 10-15% in the summer.

Solar array mounting

As discussed earlier, the amount of power that your solar photovoltaic system produces is dependent on the intensity of light hitting your solar array. There are three types of mounting you can get for your solar panels to help maximise the amount of light that they receive.

Fixed solar array mountings

These are the simplest of all the mounting systems, and also the cheapest. In this system, the solar panels will not move at all at any time during the year, so you want to ensure that when you put in the panels they are facing the equator to maximise sunlight.

Manually adjustable solar mountings

These can be changed a few times a year to adjust for the winter and summer sun. The sun is highest in the sky during the summer months and lower in the winter, so by being able to adjust the angle of your solar array ensures that the sunlight hits the array at the best angle to avoid reflection.

Fully automated tracking solar mount

These mountings track the sun, to ensure that at all times the angle of the solar array is maximising sunlight. These are certainly the most expensive type as they are constantly moving, but they are also by far the most efficient. Despite this, it has been proven to be more cost effective to add an extra solar panel to your array and use the fixed or adjustable mountings.

Installing Solar PV

Are you thinking about installing a solar PV system at home? We have scoured the country for the best tradespeople, so that we can make sure we only recommend those we really trust.

If you would like us to find you a local installer to help install a solar PV system in your home, just fill in the form below and we will be in touch shortly!


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    Types of Solar PV Setup

    Renewables

Each solar setup has its own benefits and limitations, and it is important to gain a real understanding of these before you invest in a potentially expensive solar PV system, to help avoid disappointment further down the line.

Grid-tied solar PV Systems

99% of solar systems installed on people’s homes in the UK are what’s known as ‘grid-tied’ systems. These grid-tied systems allow you to use the free electricity you create from the solar PV system, as well as electricity from the National Grid. This gives you flexibility, since you have a constant supply of electricity, whether or not the sun is shining.

Any shortfall in supply from your solar PV array can be met by additional electricity supplied via the grid, but there is also the added benefit of being able to sell any surplus back to the grid. In essence, a grid-tied system will go some way to reducing your dependence on the utility companies, and also save you money, while still giving you the comfort of as much electricity as you need from the grid. The lack of batteries also makes this type of solar setup cheaper to install.

Grid-tied solar PV installations have become incredibly popular in the UK recently due to generous government subsidies (guaranteed for 25 years from the date of installation).

Off-grid/standalone solar PV systems

Producing 100% of your own electricity in a clean and sustainable manner is the dream scenario for many people; the thought of never paying another electricity bill, and never suffering from grid blackouts is obviously a very attractive proposition.

However, an off-grid system does not need to be very sophisticated and grand in scale – it can simply power a light in your garden shed, or a water fountain in your garden. For this reason, off-grid installations are the most common type of solar installation across the globe, providing electricity to any isolated location (normally where no other electricity source is readily available).

The disadvantage is that you essentially become the utility company, so any costly repairs fall under your remit. Also, if there is a problem with your supply for any reason, you will not have electricity. Solar power is also an intermittent source (i.e it doesn’t power 100% of the time), so if you need electricity during the night (for lighting etc), you will need to install batteries within your system. These enable you to store energy during the day and use it when you are not generating.

The rewards for installing an off-grid system are clear; however the increased responsibility of owning your home’s electricity supply could make this kind of system a potentially daunting task for solar PV beginners.

Grid-tied with battery backup systems

The issue with this system is its added complexity compared to the grid-tied solar PV system described above. The batteries will require additional maintenance and add significantly to the final cost, and they will also introduce additional inefficiencies within your system – potentially a 15% loss in overall performance.

Grid fallback systems

This is where electricity is taken from the batteries and run through an inverter to provide the electricity required in the home. Once the batteries begin to go flat, the system automatically switches over to grid power, allowing the solar panels to once again charge the bank of batteries, and the process starts again.

Installing Solar PV

Are you thinking about installing a solar PV system at home? We have scoured the country for the best tradespeople, so that we can make sure we only recommend those we really trust.

If you would like us to find you a local installer to help install a solar PV system in your home, just fill in the form below and we will be in touch shortly!


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    The Cost of a Solar PV System

    Renewables

How much do solar panels cost?

Solar PV panels have reduced in price by approximately 40% as a result of falling manufacturing costs and increased competition in the market. This means you can now get a solar PV system installed on your roof for between £4,000 and £7,000. You can also get payment from the government for every unit of energy you generate, and for sending what you don’t use to the National Grid.

>>> Read our detailed Solar PV case Study <<<

Eligibility for solar PV Feed-in Tariff

In order to make installing solar PV more attractive, the government launched the Feed-in Tariff, which pays households for any electricity produced from the solar PV system. Although payment rates have now been cut drastically, and will no longer pay for the system itself, the extra money is still a bonus if you would like to generate your own electricity anyway.

>>> Learn more about the Feed-in tariff and how to apply <<<.

Export Tariff vs. using the electricity at home

To maximise the return from the solar PV installation, you will want to use as much of the electricity you produce in your home as possible. In the most basic terms, if you use the electricity you produce in the home, then you don’t need to buy it from your energy provider (a saving of around 12.5p/kWh). If you export it, you only get paid a fraction of this – but this isn’t actually the main reason to export the electricity.

>>> Learn how to use 100% of the electricity from your solar PV <<<

How and when households use their solar PV-generated electricity could be about to change hugely, with big developments in battery storage technology. Read more about it here.

Solar PV worked examples

For someone to be in the 75% and above usage range, they would have to be at home almost constantly throughout the week. Going forward, we are going to assume that the typical user uses about 50% of the electricity they produce and exports the other 50%, but in the table below we have shown the financial implications of home use versus exporting the electricity.

So, to start with, we will look at a typical 3kWh system (installed on a new build with a ‘higher’ energy efficiency requirement rating) and see the annual return, based on the percentage you use in the home versus how much you export. Over a year, a 3kW system would expect to be around 90% efficient and generate about 2700 kWh of electricity (an average home used 4,800 kWh per year).

Worked Examples – % of Electricity used in the Home : % of Electricity Exported to the Grid

100% : 0% 75% : 25% 50% : 50% 25% : 75%
Total kWh/year 2700kWh 2700kWh 2700kWh 2700kWh
FiT (4.43p/kWh) £120 £120 £120 £120
Used by household (12.50p) £338 £253 £169 £84
Export tariff (4.85p) £0 £30 £61 £91
TOTAL RETURN £458 £373 £289 £204

These numbers are correct as of 23 March 2017. For the latest rates, click here.

What impacts the initial cost of your solar PV installation?

The cost of your solar PV system is dependent on two things:

1. The size of the installation

Obviously the larger the system you install, the more electricity it has the potential to produce. The average solar PV system installed in the UK now is 3.5KW, which – working at 90% efficiency – will produce approximately 3150kWh of electricity (depending how much sun you get in your part of the country). As reference, an average house uses approximately 4,800kWh. The number of panels you can install will probably be limited by either the amount you can afford or the size of your roof. Suppliers will also charge different prices for their installation services and it’s important to ensure they are MCS-accredited to qualify for the Feed-in Tariff.

2. The quality of the solar panels used

Not all solar panels are the same!

See our guide to the different types of solar panels for more details, but in a nutshell there are three types:

How are the efficiency figures calculated? Well it is determined by how many watts of power are produced in a square meter. 100% efficiency means that a square meter of panel would create 1,000 watts. Therefore a panel rated at 18% would create 180 watts from every m2; it follows that panels with higher efficiency ratings create more electricity (per meter squared) and this is reflected in the price.

>>> How solar return changes based on pitch and shading <<<

As you can see in the table above, the actual price of your installation varies depending on the types of panel you get installed, so a 4kW system could cost as little as £5,500, or as much as £7,000.

System A

System B

System C

Cost

£5,500

£6,250

£7,000

Type of Panel

Amorphous

Poly

Mono

Efficiency of Panel

9%

15%

20%

Output (kWh)

3200

3500

3700

Feed-in Tariff (£)

399

436

461

Savings on electricity bill (£)

200

219

231

50% electricity exported (£)

65

80

90

Annual Return (£)

664

735

782

 

Payback of your Solar System

So having chosen to go for a typical 3.5kW solar PV array for your home, what kind of payback time can you expect?

Well, if you were to make £666 a year via Feed-In Tariff (as in the table 2 above), then a £6,000 pound system will pay back in 9 years. The Feed-In Tariff is guaranteed for 20 years, the payments are tax free and they are linked to RPI, so will actually increase over time.

In addition, electricity prices are expected to go up over time, so the 12.5 pence you save for every kWh of electricity you use in your home will actually increase – and could be nearer 20 pence in just 5 years – therefore the absolute return could actually become bigger.

Once you have ‘made your money back’, then any money you make is paid directly to you as profit – so you will be in line to receive 11 years of quarterly payments directly into your bank account (again, tax-free!).

There are a few other costs to think about with solar PV

Maintenance

There are maintenance costs associated with your solar PV installation, including cleaning them at least twice a year to ensure they are working as efficiently as they can.

Replacing Inverters

In addition, despite the solar panels being good for 20 years plus, the inverters have a lifespan of about 10 years, and replacing these will cost just shy of £1,000 – so factor this in to your calculations when your solar installers give you a quote.

>>> Microinverters can also increase Solar PV return – click to find out more <<<

Insurance

You will need to insure you solar PV array as part of your home insurance, so your insurance premium payments will slightly increase.

Planning Permission

Installing solar panels on your roof does normally not require planning permission. However if you live in a conservation area or world heritage site, you will need to speak to your planning authority to get the necessary permission. Note: there will also be legal fees associated with this.

Installing Solar PV

Are you thinking about installing a solar PV system at home? We have scoured the country for the best tradespeople, so that we can make sure we only recommend those we really trust.

If you would like us to find you a local installer to help install a solar PV system in your home, just fill in the form below and we will be in touch shortly!


Interested in solar PV?

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    Maximising Solar PV Return

    Renewables

Maximising your solar PV return

It goes without saying that the bigger your solar array, the more electricity it will produce, but how else can you be sure you are maximising your return?

Orientation of the panels

Solar panels in the northern hemisphere perform best when facing due south. This ensures that they receive the maximum exposure from the sun as it travels east to west. There is little point putting solar panels on a north-facing roof, so you may need to install them on a solar array mounting on the ground to ensure you can get the panels angled in a southerly direction.

There are different types of solar array mounting, but you can get fully automated tracking solar mounts. These mountings track the movement of the sun to ensure that the angle of the solar array is maximising exposure to sunlight at all times. These are expensive, but they also make sure you are getting the best yield.

Casting shadows on your solar PV array

It is important to ensure that shadows won’t fall on the solar panels during the peak sunlight hours, as this will obviously adversely affect the output of your solar system.

The effect of shadowing is amplified if your solar PV array has been set up with string inverters. In this setup, each panel is connected to the next panel in a series of strings, with each panel feeding a DC current to the inverter. When a cell underperforms, bypass diodes reroute the current around the underperforming cells. The problem is that rerouting the current loses not only the potential energy from these cells, but also lowers the entire string’s voltage.

The inverter then has to decide whether to optimise the voltage of the underperforming string or maximise the energy harvest from the unaffected strings. Normally the inverter chooses to optimise the voltage of the underperforming string, causing the performance of the whole string of panels affected to drop significantly. Just 10% shading of a solar PV panel can result in a 50% decline in output in this type of setup.

Solar arrays with micro inverters do not suffer anywhere near as badly from shading compared to the arrays with string inverters.

As a result of the shading issue, it is important to ensure that shadows won’t fall on the solar cells during peak sunlight hours as this will obviously adversely affect the output of your solar system. It is also important to have the foresight to predict tree growth in the coming years, as solar panels should go on producing electricity for 25 years; therefore trees that are currently of no concern could very easily grow to sufficient size in 15 years to cast shadows, diminishing the power producing capability of the solar photovoltaic system.

Keeping your solar panels clean

The operating efficiency of a solar PV panel is dependent on the amount of sunlight that hits it, so if you panels are covered in dirt they are going to produce less electricity. It is suggested to wash your solar panels 2-3 times per year for maximum efficiency. We cover the various techniques for cleaning your solar array here.

You should also coat your solar panels with protectant to reduce reflection and increase transmissivity.

Ambient temperatures of the panels

One of the key factors impacting the amount of electricity your solar panels produce is the temperature at which they operate. It is easy to presume more sun and therefore heat results in more electricity but this is wrong. Different solar panels react slightly differently to the operating ambient temperature, but in all cases the efficiency of a panel will decrease as the temperature increases.

The negative impact of temperature on solar panel efficiency is known as the temperature coefficient.

Solar panels are power tested at 250C, so the temperature coefficient percentage illustrates the change in efficiency as it goes up or down by a degree. For example if the temperature coefficient of a particular type of panel is -0.5%, then for every 10C rise, the panels maximum power will reduce by 0.5%.

So on a hot day, when panel temperatures may reach 450C, a panel with a temperature coefficient of -0.5% would result in a maximum power output reduction of 10%. Conversely, if it was a sunny winter’s morning, the panels will actually be more efficient.

It is therefore really important to maximise airflow around the panels to try to keep them cool so their efficiency isn’t negatively impacted. Rather than installing panels flat against your roof, you could try lifting them slightly to allow air to circulate underneath.

Use more of the electricity in your home

As mentioned in the solar PV costs section, it is best to use the electricity you produce from your solar PV array in your home, since that means you don’t need to buy it at 15p from the electricity company. Selling the electricity back to the grid means you are eligible for the export tariff which is only 4.5p/kWh.

One way to do this is with a solar diverter. These send excess energy that isn’t being used by your appliances to your immersion heater instead, helping to heat your water.

You can also make behavioural changes to ensure that you are using as much of your self-generated energy as possible. It is worth changing some of your energy usage behaviour. For example, it is better to run washing machines and dishwashers during the day – so set them to start as you leave for work.

The other way to use all the electricity you produce is by incorporating batteries into your solar PV array. Batteries will increase the upfront cost of your array and will require maintenance, but can be really worthwhile in the long run. Any electricity you produce during the day can be stored in the batteries and then used as and when you require it.

Final thoughts on investing in a solar PV system

Having received quotes for solar PV installation, you need to run the numbers to see if it makes financial sense for you to invest. It is important to bear in mind though, that solar photovoltaic arrays are modular, therefore new panels can be introduced at later dates as finances allow, further increasing the electrical output potential of your system.

Installing a solar photovoltaic array on your property should not be solely a financial decision though; you should also take into account energy security.

As demand for electricity in the UK continues to increase, the supply side is not keeping up. Over the next 3 years, 8 of the UK’s coal power plants are going to close, due to EU legislation on emissions, and by the end of the decade some of our nuclear capacity is also due to be decommissioned. Experts have predicted that the UK could face blackouts in the next few years.

A solar photovoltaic system can therefore reduce your reliance on energy companies, helping to minimise the impact of energy scarcity on you and your family in the future.

Installing Solar PV

Are you thinking about installing a solar PV system at home? We have scoured the country for the best tradespeople, so that we can make sure we only recommend those we really trust.

If you would like us to find you a local installer to help install a solar PV system in your home, just fill in the form below and we will be in touch shortly!


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    Solar PV and Planning Permission

    Renewables

When is Solar PV a Permitted Development?

A solar photovoltaic array is normally considered a permitted development, as long as certain criteria are met which are detailed below.

Solar PV fixed to your home, or another building within your grounds must meet the following criteria:

Solar PV not fixed to your home or roof, but situated somewhere on your land must follow the following criteria:

Installing Solar PV

Are you thinking about installing a solar PV system at home? We have scoured the country for the best tradespeople, so that we can make sure we only recommend those we really trust.

If you would like us to find you a local installer to help install a solar PV system in your home, just fill in the form below and we will be in touch shortly!


Interested in solar PV?

I would like to be contacted by local installers
I would like to receive occasional news from TheGreenAge

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